Many plants at Spring Creek are prairie forbs which typically grow in shallow to deeper Blackland Prairie soils. Common families are the composites, mints, and legumes in addition to native grasses. Scientific and common names generally follow Shinners & Mahler’s Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas, 1999, George Diggs, Jr., Barney L. Lipscomb, and Robert J. O’Kennon, Austin College & Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT).  Bottomland hardwood forests along Spring Creek are dominated by Shumard, bur and chinquapin oaks with green ash, hackberry, American elm, pecan,sycamore, and black walnut common. Common vines are mustang grape and Alabama supplejack. Shrubs and trees on mesic slopes adjacent to the prairie include Texas red oak, cedar elm, eastern red cedar, osage orange, honey locust, western soapberry, gum bumelia, tooth-ache tree, possum-haw holly, southern Catalpa and fragrant sumac. Thirty five (35) families are represented by only one species (monotypic families), a good indication of the floral and overall biodiversity of Spring Creek Preserve and Spring Creek Forest. 


Special thanks to Dr. Barney Lipscomb, Assistant Director of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, for checking the floral list for Spring Creek.  Also thanks to Tom Frey, Fay Danahy, Norm Sears,  Jim Varnum and Dr. Rich Nelson for their expertise for identifying some of the species and to Ben Cox for his beautiful photographs.

Habitat Types and Conservation Targets

System                                    Community                                          Target Species

Floodplain Forests    Shummard/Bur/Chinkapin Oaks            Solomon’s Seal, Trout Lily, Eastern Wahoo, Tall Meadow Rue, Yellow Violet, Spring Coralroot, Neotropical Migratory Birds

Grasslands                 Big Blue Stem/ L. Blue Stem                  Great Plains Ladies’ Tresses, Purple Coneflower, Green Milkweed, Liatris mucronata, Fox-Glove, All native prairie grasses

Dry Upland Forest (copes/tree islands)                                    Quercus buckleyi, Fraxinus texana , Fragrant sumac, Texas honeysuckle, Elbow Bush

Chalk Glades     Edaphic Communities of  Forbs/ Cryptogams          Liatris glandulosa, Ground-Plum & other legumes, Missouri Primrose, Redroot (NJ Tea), Wooly Ironweed, unidentified cryptogams

Aquatic/Riverine       Hydrophytic Communities                    Cardinal Flower, possible Hexalectris spicata?

Aquatic Biota                                        Fishes, Mussels, Inverts, Native Aquatic plants

Modified and based on presentation by Jim Eidson, The Nature Conservancy,  before the Society on January 3, 2006


Division Equisetophyta

Equisetaceae (Horsetail Family)

Equisetum hyemale var. affine. (Horsetail, Scouring-Rush)

Division Polypodiophyta

    Anemiaceae (Anemia Family)

    Anemia mexicana (Mexican Fern)

    Thelyperidaceae (Marsh Fern Family)

    Thelypteris kunthii (Southern Shield Fern) ?- seepage area along stream

     Adiatum capillus-veneris (Southern Maidenhair Fern) – seepage

area north of Spring Creek on Mustang Creek, Plano.


Acanthaceae (Acanthus or Wild Petunia Family)
Dicliptera brachiata (False Mint)*
Dyschoriste linearis (Snake Herb)

Ruellia brittoniana – escape

Ruellia caroliniensis (Small-flower Ruellia)
Ruellia drummondiana (Drummond’s Wild Petunia)

Ruellia humilis (Low Wild Petunia)*

Ruellia nudiflora var. nudilfora

Aceraceae (Maple Family)

Acer negundo (Box-Elder, Ash-Leaf Maple)

Acer sacharinium (Silver Maple, River Maple)

Anacardiaceae (Sumac or Cashew Family)

Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac)

Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac)

Toxicodendron pubescens (Eastern Poison Ivy)

Toxicodendron radicans (Poison-Oak)

Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Parsley Family

Bupleurum rotundifolium (Round-leaf Thoroughwax)
Daucus carota (Queen-Anne’s-Lace)
Eryngium leavenworthii (Leavenworth’s Eryngo)
Polytaenia nuttalii (Prairie-Parsley)
Polytaenia texana (Texas-Parsley)

Ptilimnium nuttalii (Nuttall’s Mock Bishop’s-Weed)

Torilis arvensis (Hedge-Parsley)
Zizia aurea (Golden Alexander)*

Apocynaceae (Oleander or Dogbane Family)
Vinca major (Big-leaf Periwinkle) – escape

Aquifoliaceae (Holly Family)

Ilex decidua (Possumhaw, Winterberry, Prairie Holly)

Ilex cornuta (Chinese Holly-escape) found by Anne McKay

Araceae (Calla, Arum or Aroid Family)
Arisaema dracontium (Green-Dragon, Dragonroot)*  Prairie Creek

Asclepiadaceae (Milkweek Family)
Asclepias asperula (Antelope-Horns)
Asclepias viridis (Green Milkweed)

Funastrum cynanchoides (Climbing-Milkweed, Twinevine)
Matelea biflora (Purple Milkweed Vine, Two-Flower Milkvine)

Matelea gonocarpos (Anglepod)

Asteraceae (Compositae) Sunflower or Daisy Family

Achillea millefolium (Yarrow, Milfoil, Sneezewort, Soldier’s Friend)
Ambrosia psilostachya (Western Ragweed)
Ambrosia trifida var.texana (Blood Ragweed)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Little Ragweed)
Arnoglossum plantagineum (Prairie-Plantain)

Artemesia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana (Mexican Sagebrush)

Aster drummondii var. texanus (Texas Aster)
Aster ericoides (White Prairie Aster, Heath Aster)
Baccharis neglecta (Roosevelt-Weed, New Deal Weed)

Bidens frondosa (Beggar-Ticks, Sticktights)

Calyptocarpus vialis (Lawnflower)*
Centaurea americana (Basket-Flower)

Centaurea cyanus (Bachelor’s Button, Cornflower) – non-native planted near parking lots
Cirsium undulatum (Wavy-Leaf Thistle, Pasture Thistle)
Cirsium engelmannii (Blackland Thistle)
Cirsium texana (Texas Thistle)

Dracopis amplexicaulis (Rudbeckia amplexicaulis) Clasping-Leaf Coneflower
Dysodiopsis tagetoides (Marigold Dogweed)
Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia (Purple Cone-Flower, Blacksamson)
Elephantopus carolinianus (Leafy Elephantopus, Elephant’s Foot)*
Engelmannia peristenia (E.pinnatifida) (Engelmann’s Daisy)
Erigeron philadelphicus (Philadelphia Fleabane)
Erigeron modestus (Prairie Fleabane)
Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset, Tall Thoroughwort)

Eupatorium coelestinum (Mistflower, Blue Boneset) *-streamside
Eupatorium serotinum (Late Eupatorium, Fall Boneset)
Evax verna (Many-stem Evax)
Gaillardia pulchella (Firewheel, Indian Blanket)  Color variations
Grindelia papposa (Saw-Leaf Daisy)
Grindelia lanceolata (Fall Gumweed, Gulf Gumweed)
Gutierrezia amoena (Broomweed)
Gutierrezia sarothrae (Broom Snakeweed)

Helianthus annuus (Common Sunflower, Mirasol)
Helianthus hirsutus (Rough Sunflower)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian Sunflower)
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Golden Aster, Camphor Weed)
Hymenopappus scabiosaeus  (Old  Plainsman)

Iva angustifolia (Narrow-Leaf Sumpweed, Marsh-Elder)1
Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce)

Lactuca floridana (Telegraph Lettuce)

Liatris glandulosa (Gay Feather) 1
Liatris mucronata (Gay-Feather, Blazing Star)
Lindheimera texana (Texas-Star, Lindheimer’s Daisy)
Marshallia caespitosa (Barbara’s Buttons)  

Packera obovata (Golden Groundsel)*.
Palafoxia callosa (Palafoxia)

Parthenium hysterophorus (False Ragweed)*

Pluchea odorata (Canela, Purple Pluchea, Marsh Fleabane)*- streamside
Pyrrhopappus multicaulis (Texas Dandelion)
Ratibida columnaris (Mexican Hat)
Rudbeckia hirta (Brown-Eyed Susan)
Silphium radula (Rough-Stemmed Rosinweed)

Smallanthus uvedalia (Bear’s-Foot, Hairy Leafcup)*
Solidago canadensis (Tall Goldenrod, Common Goldenrod)
Solidago ludoviciana (Willow Goldenrod)*
Solidago nemoralis (Prairie Goldenrod)

Tetraneuris scaposa (Plains Yellow Daisy, Slender-Stemmed Hymenoxys)
Tetraneuris linearifolia (formerly Slender-Leaf Hymenoxys)
Thelesperma filifolium var. filifolium (Greenthread, Thread-leaf Thelesperma)

Tragopogon dubius (Goatsbeard)non-native planted in seed mix near parking lots
Verbesina virginica (Frostweed)*
Vernonia baldwinii (Western Ironweed)
Vernonia lindheimeri (Woolly Ironweed)

Berberidaceae (Barberry Family)

Nandina domestica (Sacred-Bamboo, Heavenly- Bamboo) escape

Bignoniaceae (Catalpa or Trumpetvine Family)

Campsis radicans (Common Trumpet Creeper) 

Catalpa speciosa (Northern Catalpa, Cigartree)

Boranginaceae (Forget-Me-Not or Borage Family)
Heliotropium tenellum (White Heliotrope, Pasture Heliotrope)
Lithospermum incisum (Puccoon, Fringed Puccoon)

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Mustard Family
Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepard’s Purse)

Draba cuneifolia (Wedge-leaf Draba, Whitlow-grass)

Draba platycarpa (Broad-pod Draba)

Erucastrum gallicum (Rocketsalad, Dog-Mustard)

Lepidium virginicum (Virginia Peppergrass)
Lesquerella argyraea (Silver Bladderpod)

Rapistrum rugosum

Cactaceae (Cactus Family)
Escobaria missouriensis var. similis (Plains Nipple Cactus) -limestone area north side of Spring Creek

Opuntia engelmannii var. lindheimeri (Prickly Pear Cactus)

Opuntia humifusa (Eastern Prickly Pear)

Opuntia phaeacantha var. major (Brown Spine Prickly Pear)

Opuntia trunicata var. davisii (Jumping Cholla,)

Campanulaceae (Bluebell, Bellflower or Harebell Family)
Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower)* – saturated soils along streams
Triodanis sp. (Venus’-Looking-Glass)*

Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family)
Lonicera albiflora (Texas Honeysuckle, White Honeysuckle)
Lonicera sempervirens (Coral Honeysuckle)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle)

Lonicera maackii (Bush Honeysuckle, Tree Honeysuckle) – shrub
Sambucus nigra L. var.canadensis (Common Elderberry, American Elderberry)*
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Coral-Berry, Indian Current)- shrub
Viburnum rufidulum (Rusty Black-Haw, Southern Black-Haw)*- shrub

Caryophyllaceae (Pink or Carnation Family)
Paronychia virginica (Broom Whitlow-Wort)
Silene stellata (Widow’s Frill, Whorled Silene, Starry Campion)*

Celastriceae (Bittersweet or Stafftree Family)
Euonymus atropurpurea var. atropurpurea (Wahoo, Burning Bush)*- shrub

Convolvulaceae (Morning-Glory Family)
Cuscuta cuspidata (Cusp Dodder, Cuspidate Dodder)
Convolvulus equitans (Texas Bindweed)
Ipomoea trichocarpa (Purple Bindweed)

Ipomoea quamoclit (Cypress Vine)

Cornaceae (Dogwood Family)
Cornus drummondii (Rough-Leaf Dogwood)* – shrub

Cupressaceae (Cypress or Redwood Family)

Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-Cedar, Red-Cedar)

Dipsacaceae (Teasel Family)

Scabiosa atropurpurea (Pincushions, Sweet Scabious) – naturalized

Euphorbiaceae (Spurge Family)

Acalypha gracilens (Slender Copperleaf)

Chamaesyce missurica (Prairie Spurge) added Aug. 2009

Croton capitatus (Woolly Croton, Hogwort)

Croton glandulosus (Tropic Croton)

Croton monanthogynus (Doveweed, Prairie-Tea)
Ditaxis mercurialina (Low Wild Mercury, Tall Ditaxis)

Euphorbia bicolor (Snow-On-The-Prairie)
Phyllanthus polygonoides (Knotweed Leaf-Flower)
Stillingia texana (Queen’s Delight, Texas Stillingia)
Tragia ramosa (Catnip Noseburn)

Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Legume, Bean, or Pulse Family
Acacia angustissima var. hirta (Prairie Acacia, White-Ball Acacia, Fern Acacia)
Amorpha fruticosa (False Indigo)* – shrub

Astragalus canadensis (Canadian Milkvetch)
Astragalus crassicarpus (Ground-Plum, Buffalo Plum)

Astragalus lotiflorus (Low Milk Vetch) n.side Spring Creek nr Fred E. Harris park

Astragalus plattensis (Platte River Milk Vetch)
Astragalus nuttallianus (Small-flower Milk Vetch)
Cassia fasciculata (Partridge Pea)
Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)*
Dalea compacta var. pubescens (Purple Prairie Clover, Showy Prairie-Clover)
Dalea multiflora (White Prairie-Clover)

Dalea hallii (Hall’s Prairie-Clover) – limestone outcrop north side of Spring Creek

Desmanthus illinoensis (Illinois Bundleflower)

Desmodium ciliare (Little-Leaf Tick-Clover)*
Desmodium nuttallii (Nuttall’s Tick-Clover)*
Desmodium paniculatum (Panicled Tick-Clover)*
Desmodium tweedyi (Tweedy’s Tick-Clover)
Galactia volubilis (Downy Milk-Pea)* ?
Lathyrus pusillus (Low Peavine)

Lathyrus hirsutus (Rough Pea)

Lupinus texensis (Texas Bluebonnet, Buffalo-Clover, Texas Lupine)

Medicago lupulina (Black Medick, Hop-Clover, Yellow Trefoil)
Melilotus officinalis (Yellow Sweet Clover)
Mimosa roemeriana (Roemer’s Sensitive-Briar, Roemer’s Schrankia)
Pediomelum linearifolium (Slimleaf Scurfpea)

Prosopis glandulosa (Mesquite, Honey Mesquite)

Sesbania herbaceae (Coffee-bean)
Senna occidentalis (Coffee Senna, Stypicweed)
Sophora affinis (Eve’s Necklace)- shrub
Strophostyles helvula (Amberique-Bean, Trailing Wild Bean)

Trifolium dubium (Least Hop Clover, Shamrock)

Trifolium repens (White Clover)

Fagaceae (Oak or Beech Family)

Quercus buckleyi (Texas Red Oak, Buckley’s Oak, Spanish Oak)

Quercus fusiformis (Escarpment Live Oak)

Quercus macrocarpa (Bur Oak, Mossy-Cup Oak, Prairie Oak)

Quercus muehlenbergii (Chinqapin Oak, Chesnut Oak, Swamp Chesnut Oak)

Quercus shumardii (Shumard’s Oak, Shumard’s Red Oak, Swamp Red Oak)

Fumariaceae (Fumitory Family)
Corydalis sp. (Scrambled-Eggs)

Gentianaceae (Gentian Family)
Centaurium texense (Texas Centaury, Lady Bird’s Centaury)

Geranianceae (Geranium Family)
Erodium circutarium (Filaree, Pin-Clover, Stork’s Bill)

Hydrocharitaceae (Frog’s-Bit, Tape-Grass or Waterweed Family)

Egeria densa (Waterweed) – aquatic

Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf Family)

Nemophila phacelioides (Baby Blue-Eyes, Large-Flower Nemophila, Flannel-Breeches)

Juglandaceae (Walnut Family)

Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory)

Carya illinoinensis (Pecan)

Juglans microcarpa (Texas Walnut, Texas Black Walnut)

Krameriaceae (Ratany or Krameria Family)
Krameria lanceolata (Ratany)

Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Mint Family
Hedeoma drummondii (Mock Pennyroyal)
Hedeoma reverchonii (Reverchon’s False Pennyroyal)

Lamium amplexicaule (Henbit, Dead-Nettle)
Monarda citriodora (Purple Horsemint, Lemon Beebalm)
Monarda fistuloa L. var. mollis (Wild Bergamont, Long-Flower Horse Mint)*
Physostegia intermedia (Intermediate Lion’s-Heart)

Salvia azurea var. grandiflora (Blue Sage, Azure Sage, Pitcher Sage)

Salvia farinacea (Mealy Sage)
Salvia lyrata (Lyre-Leaf Sage, Cancerweed)*
Scutellaria wrightii (Bushy Skullcap)
Scutellaria drummondii (Drummond’s Skullcap)
Teucrium canadense (American Germander, Wood Sage)*

Linaceae (Flax Family)

Linum imbricatum (Tufted Flax)

Linum grandiflorum  (Scarlet Flax ) – non-native planted in seed mix near parking lots
Linum pratense (Meadow Flax)
Linum rigidum var berlandieri (Berlandier’s Flax, Yellow Flax)

Loasaceae (Stickleaf or Blazingstar Family)

Mentzelia oligosperma (Stickleaf, Regahosa)1

Malvaceae (Mallow Family)
Callirhoe pedata (Finger Poppy-Mallow, “Winecup”)
Sida abutifolia (Spreading Sida)

Meliaceae (Mahoghany Family)

Medlia azedarach (China-Berry) – tree

Menispermacea (Moonseed Family)
Cocculus carolinus (Carolina Snailseed, Coralberry)

Moraceae (Mulberry or Fig Family)

Maclura pomifera (Bois D’Arc, Horse-Apple,Osage-Orange)

Nyctaginaceae (Four-O’Clock Family)

Abronia fragrans (Sand-Verbena, Snowball)?
Mirabilis nyctaginea (Wild Four-O’Clock)*

Mirabilis latifolia

Oleaceae (Olive Family)

Forestiera pubescens (Elbow Bush, Desert Olive)

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash)

Fraxinus texana (Texas White Ash, Texas Ash)

Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese Privet, Wax-Leaf Ligustrum) * naturalized

Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Trueno de seto) * naturalized

Onagraceae (Evening-Primrose Family)
Calylophus berlandieri (Square-Bud Day Primrose, Drummond’s Sundrops)
Gaura longiflora (Tall Gaura, Kearney’s Gaura)
Gaura parviflora (Lizard-Tail Gaura, Velvet-Leaf Gaura)
Gaura suffulata (Roadside Gaura, Bee-Blossom)
Ludwigia sp. (Water Primrose, False Loosestrife)

Oenothera missouriensis (Missouri Primrose)

Oenothera speciosa (Showy Primrose)

Oenothera triloba (Stemless Evening-Primrose, Three-Lobed-Primrose)

Orchidaceae (Orchid Family)

Spiranthes magnicamporum (Great Plains Ladies’-Tresses)

Corallorrhiza wisteriana (Spring Coralroot, Wister’s Coralroot)*

Oxalidaceae (Woodsorrel Family)

Oxalis violacea (Violet Wood-Sorrel)*
Oxalis priceae (Yellow Wood-Sorrel)*

Papaveraceae (Poppy Family)

Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy, Gold Poppy)non-native planted near parking lots

Passifloraceae (Passion-Flower Family)
Passiflora lutea (Yellow Passion-Flower)

Phrymaceae (Lopseed Family)
Phryma leptostachya (Lopseed)*

Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed Family)

Rivina humilis (Pigeon-Berry, Bloodberry)*

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)

Plantaginaceae (Plantain Family)

Plantago virginica (Pale-seed Plantain, Dwarf Plantain)

Plantago wrightiana (Wright’s Plantain)

Plantanaceae (Sycamore or Planetree Family)

Plantanus occidentalis (American Sycamore)

Portulacaceae (Purslane Family)

Claytonia virginica (Spring-Beauty)

Polemoniaceae (Phlox or Polemonium Family)
Ipomopsis rubra (Standing Cypress, Texas Plume)*
Phlox cuspidata (Pointed Phlox, Large-Flower Phlox)
Phlox pilosa ssp. pilosa (Prairie Phlox)

Phlox drummondii (Pride-Of-Texas, Drummond’s Phlox)non-native planted in seed mix near parking lots

Polygonaceae (Knotweed Family)
Eriogonum longifolium (Long-leaf Wild Buckwheat)

Rumex crispus (Curly Dock)

Primulaceae (Primrose Family)

Samoulus ebracteatus cuneatus (Limerock brookweed) – seeps along stream

Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)
Anemone berlandieri (Ten-Petal Anemone)
Clematis pitcheri (Purple Leatherflower)

Delphinium sp.
Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (Prairie Larkspur)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (Purple Meadow-Rue)*

Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn Family)

Berchemia scandens (Supplejack,Rattanvine, Alabama Supplejack)
Ceanothus americanus (Redroot, New Jersey Tea)– shrub

Rosaceae (Rose Family)

Crataegus reverchonii (Reverchon’s Hawthorn) found by Anne McKay
Gerum canadense (White Avens)*

Photinia serratifolia (Chinese Photinia)

Prunus caroliniana (Cherry Laurel)  escape

Prunus mexicana (Mexican Plum)

Prunus persica (Peach, Durazno) -escape
Rosa setigera var. tomentosa (Prairie Rose, Climbing Rose)
Rosa foliolosa (White Prairie Rose, Leafy Rose)

Rubus trivialis (Southern Dewberry)*

Rubiaceae (Coffee or Madder Family)

Galium aparine (Sticky Bedstraw)
Galium virgatum (Southwest Bedstraw)
Hedyotis nigricans (Baby’s Breath, Prairie Bluets)

Rutaceae (Citrus or Rue Family)

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (Prickly-Ash, Toothachetree, Hercules’-Club)

Sapindaceae (Soapberry Family)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (Common Balloonvine)

Sapindus saponaria L. var. drummondii (Western Soapberry, Wild Chinaberry)

Sapotaceae (Chicle, Sapote, or Sapodilla Family)

Sideroxylon saponaria (Chittamwood, Coma, Gum Bumelia)

Sideroxylan lanuginosum subsp. oblongifolium (Woolly-bucket bumelia, Chittamwood)

Scrophulariaceae (Foxglove, Figwort, or Snapdragon Family)
Agalinis heterophylla (Prairie Agalinis)

Mimulus alatus (Monkey Flower)

Castilleja indivisa (Texas Paintbrush)
Penstemon cobaea (Fox-Glove)

Verbascum blattaria (Moth Mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (Common Mullein, Indian-Tobacco)

Linaria maroccana (Toadflax, Spurred Snapdragon)- non-native planted in seed mix near parking lots

Simaroubaceae (Quassia or Simarouba Family)

Ailianthus altissima (Tree of Heaven, Smoketree)

Smilacaceae (Greenbrier or Catbrier Family)

Smilax rotundifolia (Common Greenbrier, Bullbrier, Horsebrier)

Smilax bona-nox (Saw Greenbrier, Fiddle-leaf Greenbrier)

Smilax tamnoides (Chinaroot, Bristle Greenbrier)

Solanaceae (Nightshade or Potato Family)
Physalis  cinerascens (Ground-Cherry)

Solanum dimidiatum (Western Horse-nettle)
Solanum elaeagnifolium (Silver-Leaf Nightshade)
Solanum rostratum (Buffalo Bur)

Ulmaceae (Elm Family)

Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry, Sugar Hackberry)

Ulmus alata (Winged Elm, Cork Elm)

Ulmus americana (American Elm, White Elm)

Ulmus crassifolia (Cedar Elm)

Ulmus rubra (Slippery Elm)

Urticaceae (Nettle Family)

Urtica chamaedryoides (Stinging Nettle, Heart-Leaf Nettle)

Valerianaceae (Valerian Family)
Valerianella radiata (Corn-Salad)

Verbenaceae (Vervain or Verbena Family)
Callicarpa americana (American Beauty-berry, French Mulberry)* – shrub
Glandularia bipinnatifilda (Prairie Verbena, Dakota Vervain)
Lippia nodiflora (Frogfruit)
Verbena halei (Texas Vervain)
Verbena urticifolia (White Vervain, Nettle-Leaf Vervain)*

Violaceae (Violet Family)
Viola missouriensis (Missouri Violet)*
Viola pubescens (Yellow Violet)*
Viola bicolor (Field Pansy, Johnny-Jump-Up)

Viscaceae (Mistletoe Family)
Phoradendron tomentosum (Mistletoe) 

Vitaceae (Grape Family)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia-Creeper, American Ivy)- vine

Vitis aestivalis (Pigeon Grape)- vine
Vitis mustangensis (Mustang Grape)- vine


Agavaceae (Yucca, Century-Plant or Agave Family)
Yucca arkansana (Arkansas Yucca)
Yucca pallida (Pale Yucca, Pale-Leaf Yucca)

Commelinaceae (Spiderwort Family)
Tradescantia occidentalis (Prairie Spiderwort)

Iridaceae (Iris Family)
Sisyrinchium pruinosum ( Dotted Blue-eyed Grass)
Sisyrinchium albidum (White Blue-eyed Grass)

Iris germanica (Garden Iris) (escape)

Liliaceae (Lily Family)
Androstephium coeruleum (Androstephium, Funnel-Flower)

Allium drummondii (Prairie Onion, Drummond’s Onion)
Camassia scilloides (Wild Hyacinth)

Cooperia drummondii (Rain Lily, Cebolleta) 

Erythronium albidum (Trout Lily, Dog’s-Tooth-Violet)*

Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) – introduced

Iris germanica (Garden Iris). – introduced

Leucojum aestivum (Giant Snowflake, Summer Snowflake) – introduced*

Lycoris radiata (Spider Lily, Red Spider Lily) – escape

Muscari neglectum (Starch Grape-Hyacinth) – introduced *
Nothoscordum bivalve (Crow-Poison)

Ophiopogon japonicus (Mondo-Grass or Monkey Grass) – introduced*

Ornithogalum umbellatum (Star-Of-Bethlehem)
Polygonatum biflorum (Great Solomon’s Seal)*

Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)

Carex bulbostylis (=amphibola) – Amphibious Sedge*
Carex davisii – Davis Sedge*
Carex leavenworthii – Narrow-leaved Sedge*

Poacea (Gramineae) Grass Family

Agrostis elliottiana – Elliott’s Bent Grass
Andropogon gerardii ssp. gerardii – Big Bluestem
Anisantha tectorum – Cheat Grass

Aristida longespica var. geniculata – Kearney’s Threeawn
Aristida oligantha – Oldfield Threeawn
Bothriochloa ischaemum – King Ranch Bluestem
Bothriochloa laguroides ssp. torryana – Silver Bluestem
Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula – Side-oats Grama
Bouteloua hirsuta – Hairy Grama

Bouteloua regidiseta – Texas Grama

Bromus japonicus – Japanese Brome – invasive
Cenchrus incertus – Grassbur
Chasmanthium latifolium – Wild Oats, Inland Sea-Oats*

Chloris verticillata – Windmill Grass

Chloris sp.

Cynodon dactylon – Bermuda Grass

Elymus virginiana – Virginia Wild Rye

Eriochloa sericea – Texas Cup Grass, Silky Cup Grass

Festuca arundinacea – Tall Fescue

Leptochloa mucronata – Red Sprangletop

Lolium perenne subsp.(Perennial Rye)

Nassella leucotricha – Texas Needlegrass, Winter Grass, Texas Winter Grass

Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum–  Scribner’s Rosette Grass
Panicum sphaerocarpon – Round-seed Panic Grass

Paspalum dilidatum (Dallas Grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium – Little Bluestem

Setaria pumila – Yellow Bristle Grass

Sorghastrum nutans – Indian Grass  new
Sorghum halepense – Johnson Grass
Sporobolus compositus var. compositus or drummondii?– Tall Dropseed
Sporobolus neglectus – Puff-sheath Dropseed
Tridens muticus muticus – Slim Tridens



*   Denotes species generally found in mesic forest and floodplain habitats.


Hedera helix (English Ivy)

Acer saccharinium ( Silver Maple)

346 species  of trees, shrubs, forbs, and grasses


compiled by Jack and Derek Hill

Recent news about the discovery of a new species of Liatris

New Online Flora! – Shinners & Mahler’s book in pdf format